Each PLC is basically a microcontroller system (CPU of PLC controller is based on one of the microcontrollers, and in more recent times on one of the PC processors) with peripherals that can be digital inputs, digital outputs or relays as in our case. However, this is not an "ordinary" microcontroller system. Large teams have worked on it, and a checkup of its function has been performed in real world under all possible circumstances. Software itself is entirely different from assemblers used thus far, such as BASIC or C. This specialized software is called "ladder" (name came about by an association of program's configuration which resembles a ladder, and from the way program is written out).Specific look of CPM1A PLC controller can be seen in the following picture. On the upper surface, there are 4 LED indicators and a connection port with an RS232 module which is interface to a PC computer. Aside from this, screw terminals and light indicators of activity of each input or output are visible on upper and lower sides. Screw terminals serve to manually connect to a real system. Hookups L1 and L2 serve as supply which is 220V~ in this case. PLC controllers that work on power grid voltage usually have a source of direct supply of 24 VDC for supplying sensors and such (with a CPM1A source of direct supply is found on the bottom left hand side and is represented with two screw terminals. Controller can be mounted to industrial "track" along with other automated elements, but also by a screw to the machine wall or control panel.Controller is 8cm high and divided vertically into two areas: a lower one with a converter of 220V~ at 24VDC and other voltages needed for running a CPU unit; and, upper area with a CPU and memory, relays and digital inputs.When you lift the small plastic cover you'll see a connector to which an RS232 module is hooked up for serial interface with a computer. This module is used when programming a PLC controller to change programs or execution follow-up. When installing a PLC it isn't necessary to install this module, but it is recommended because of possible changes in software during operation.To better inform programmers on PLC controller status, maker has provided for four light indicators in the form of LED's. Beside these indicators, there are status indicators for each individual input and output. These LED's are found by the screw terminals and with their status are showing input or output state. If input/output is active, diode is lit and vice versa.